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Table 2 Example scenarios describing conversion operations and their corresponding costs

From: Layout-aware text extraction from full-text PDF of scientific articles

System Output Operation in Gold Standard Representation Cost
Block is split Split the gold standard block into the required number 1
Big block is subsuming n small blocks Delete the involved blocks in the gold standard and add one big block n + 1
n block are intersecting Delete all the blocks in the gold standard, whose area is common with the intersecting blocks, in the system output Number of blocks deleted from gold standard +1