A dedicated database system for handling multi-level data in systems biology
- Natapol Pornputtapong†1,
- Kwanjeera Wanichthanarak†1,
- Avlant Nilsson1,
- Intawat Nookaew1 and
- Jens Nielsen1Email author
© Pornputtapong et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014
Received: 14 March 2014
Accepted: 1 July 2014
Published: 10 July 2014
Advances in high-throughput technologies have enabled extensive generation of multi-level omics data. These data are crucial for systems biology research, though they are complex, heterogeneous, highly dynamic, incomplete and distributed among public databases. This leads to difficulties in data accessibility and often results in errors when data are merged and integrated from varied resources. Therefore, integration and management of systems biological data remain very challenging.
To overcome this, we designed and developed a dedicated database system that can serve and solve the vital issues in data management and hereby facilitate data integration, modeling and analysis in systems biology within a sole database. In addition, a yeast data repository was implemented as an integrated database environment which is operated by the database system. Two applications were implemented to demonstrate extensibility and utilization of the system. Both illustrate how the user can access the database via the web query function and implemented scripts. These scripts are specific for two sample cases: 1) Detecting the pheromone pathway in protein interaction networks; and 2) Finding metabolic reactions regulated by Snf1 kinase.
Results and conclusion
In this study we present the design of database system which offers an extensible environment to efficiently capture the majority of biological entities and relations encountered in systems biology. Critical functions and control processes were designed and implemented to ensure consistent, efficient, secure and reliable transactions. The two sample cases on the yeast integrated data clearly demonstrate the value of a sole database environment for systems biology research.
Systems biology aims to gain insight into complex biological systems by integrating disparate piece of data from various sources and from different levels (such as genome, transcriptome, proteome, metabolome, interactome or reactome), and formulate models that describe how the systems work . The explosive growth in biological and biochemical data is beneficial for systems biology research and it has driven the development of diverse types of biological databases, such as GenBank , UniProt , SGD , HMDB , BioGRID , KEGG , ArrayExpress  and GEO . However only 20% of the millions of deposited data in GEO have been referred in other work , indicating a bottleneck in utilization of large-scale data. Even though these public repositories ensure easy access to data and hence represent a platform for systems biology research, they were in many cases implemented in isolated groups with a particular purpose in mind. Furthermore, these databases often have distinct data models, different file formats, varied semantic concepts and specific data access techniques , and they often contain incomplete data. All in all, those factors make data management and data integration extremely challenging and error-prone.
Attempts have been made to resolve these key issues through the development of numerous data standards (e.g. SBML , CellML , PSI-MI , BioPAX , GO  and SBO ), the implementation of centralized and federated databases (e.g. cPath , PathCase  and Pathway Commons ) and the proposal of design methodologies for software and databases (e.g. I-cubed  and ). Although, there are still no best practices or solutions to this problem, research and development are underway by making use of current computational technologies, standards and frameworks (see  for a review). Here we describe the development of a dedicated database system for handling multi-level data that represents an ongoing endeavor to serve researchers in systems biology and provide alternative solutions for vital issues in data handling, data access and integration of data in a single database. The database system was designed and developed by taking into account: 1) the ability to integrate multi-level data; 2) that biological data are complex, heterogeneous, and dynamic ; 3) diversities of resources in terms of data model, semantic heterogeneity, data completeness and data correctness; 4) reusability, extensibility and interoperability of the system; and 5) integrity, consistency and reliability of data in the database. The design of database schema is adapted from BioPAX and implemented based on an object-oriented concept which represents practical information as an object with related attributes and a variety of relationships. This concept is applicable for biological information, which is apparently heterogeneous and sophisticated . The database API was developed in C++ and included a library providing important functions to manage and interact with the system.
To illustrate the integration of multi-level data under a sole database environment, a yeast data repository was developed. The database contains multi-level data of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (e.g. genome, annotation data, interactome and metabolic model) from different resources. Data population, data management and data access are managed by the database system. A simple query interface is provided to access the data and related information. Furthermore, two research cases were presented to demonstrate extensibility and efficiency of the database and the underlining database system in facilitating data integration tasks to achieve specific requests.
Database system design
In order to organize complex data structure efficiently, a specific data model and management library is required to serve the bases of ACID properties including atomicity, consistency, isolation and durability to ensure the correctness of data when used. To control the validity of data changes occurring when the user performs updates to the database, the atomicity concept was applied. In particular, only successful transactions will be committed to the database, otherwise nothing will be committed. Consistency ensures control of data integrity when multiple users are working at the same time. The isolation concept is used for preventing interference between two transactions working on the same data object. The last concept considered was durability, which ensures that committed data will never be lost . The design of the data model follows the basic concepts of a ANSI/X3/SPARC proposed architecture, which uniquely separates the view of the data structure into three layers : 1) an external layer, the first layer of data abstraction in the database system, represents the entities of data to users or applications when querying; 2) a conceptual layer, the second data abstraction layer, represents entities of data that are assembled from the physical layer and are transformed to the external layer as needed; and 3) a physical layer represents the concrete data structure that is implemented in an actual file system and it is only used by the database system. These three layers are set up independently.
The PhysicalEntity sub-classes, derived from BioObject, support molecular entities including small molecules (SmallMolecule class), DNA molecules (DNA class), genes (DNARegion class), RNA molecules (RNA class), proteins (Protein class) and molecular complex (Complex class) data. The Interaction subclasses, another BioObject derived class, support biological reactions and transport (Conversion class), molecular interactions (MolecularInteraction class), genetic interactions (GeneticInteraction class) and control interactions (Control class). Details of each data wrapper class are elaborated in Additional file 1. Relationships among the sub-classes follow real relations of biological objects to support the data integration of multilevel data as shown in Figure 1. With this data model, reliability of data with its relationship is maintained by data classes themselves, but integrity and consistency are maintained by create, read, update and delete (CRUD) function of the library as described in Additional files 2 and 3.
The instances of the data classes are managed as documents classified by property “type” and pooled together in a document collection, whereas relationships between objects are separated from their own instances and pooled in another document collection to improve the efficiency of managing high complexity relationship of data. In order to optimize query time, an indexing system was applied in common query fields.
Global system architecture
Results and discussion
Applications on a yeast data repository
Given that yeast S. cerevisiae is a widely used model organism with abundance of genome-scale information and datasets e.g. protein-protein interactions (PPI), transcriptional regulation interactions (TRI), protein kinase interactions (KI), genome-scale metabolic model and gene annotations, integration of data from these different data sources and levels can help to gain new understanding of complex cellular systems.
Data population and implementation
Data in Yeast data repository and sources
NCBI GenBank 
Transcriptional regulation interaction
In general, biological molecules are related to the molecule in different type (e.g. reaction performed by proteins, proteins translated from transcript, transcripts transcribed from genes and genes are on chromosome). Similar to a biological network, relationships in the database were designed in accordance with real biological phenomena. To insert an object into the database, it is required that such a relation is known. The relational reference is added together with the object and the database system will create a relation object corresponding to that relation pair. These relation objects were used in the cases below to search and explore relationship between one biological object to another. The biological and relation objects were populated separately into two collections: biological collection and relation collection. There were 144,675 documents of biological objects and 268,630 documents of relation objects.
The database system provides a practical library where each object type in the final database corresponds to a C++ object. This allows the user to fully populate the object before inserting it into the database. The database system ensures that all required data is set and pre-forms the task of inserting the object in the database. The task for the user simply becomes the task of gathering the required data, populating the object with the data and inserting the object. For each required data there exists a function such as addname and setlength to add the data to the object.
An online web interface was developed containing links to each application: a simple query interface and a page for case demonstration. The current version allows searching for different object types such as genes, proteins, small molecules, biochemical reactions and interactions with search results that include essential objects related to the queried object. On Cases page, it comprises interactive commands used to compile the two research cases described below.
Case 1: Detecting the pheromone pathway in protein interaction networks
Signaling pathways transmit signals from one part of the cell to another part through a cascade of protein interactions and protein modifications. Cells organize cellular changes such as transcriptional programs in response to different stimuli. The yeast mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are signaling pathways that have been extensively studied including pheromone response, filamentous growth, high osmolarity response and maintenance of cell wall integrity . These pathways are activated by sensing stressors of protein sensors or binding of receptors to the stimuli, which in turn triggers MAPKs via a series of phosphorylations. Active MAPKs phosphorylate different targets such as protein kinases, phosphatases and transcription factors (TFs), consequently controlling cell cycle, cellular metabolism and gene expression . The pheromone response pathway is activated by binding of pheromones α- and a-factor to the protein receptors Ste2 and Ste3, respectively. The signals from these membrane receptors are transmitted via sequential binding and phosphorylation reactions of MAPK cascades to TF Ste12 that subsequently activate downstream genes.
GO terms used for filtering proteins
Response to pheromone
Pheromone-dependent signal transduction involved in conjugation with cellular fusion
Activation of MAPKKK activity
Activation of MAPK activity involved in conjugation with cellular fusion
Case 2: Finding metabolic reactions regulated by Snf1 kinase
Upon sensing availability of nutrients, cells undergo transcriptional, metabolic and developmental changes in order to survive under a particular nutritional state. In yeast, through complex signaling and regulatory networks, it can grow on a wide variety of nutrients e.g. glucose, galactose, glycerol and nitrogen sources. Key components in these networks include Ras/protein kinase, Snf1 and target of rapamycin complex I (TORC1) . The protein kinase Snf1 is a member of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) family, which serves as a global energy regulator to ensure metabolic homeostasis of the cells. Under glucose limited condition, it allows the cells to use alternative carbon sources by regulating a set of TFs and genes in several metabolic processes including gluconeogenesis, glyoxylate cycle and β-oxidation of fatty acids . In addition, Snf1 also participates in other processes such as ion homeostasis, general stress response, carnitine metabolism, pseudohyphal growth and ageing . As Snf1 plays an important role in controlling many metabolic processes, we present how processes both directly and indirectly regulated by Snf1 can be retrieved from the database by integrating data from different levels.
Here we present a dedicated database model design for handling data in systems biology. It allows and supports crucial tasks in this area including integration and analysis of multi-level data, modeling of cellular pathways and collecting biological network data. In the database design, we have used a basic three layer approach to allow independent and effective implementation or changes at each data layer. The C++ library provides essential classes and services for communication among the layers. The basic properties of the database system, ACID, are responsible for providing specific functions and control processes in the library such as ”insert”, ”remove”, ”update” and ”query” to ensure that database transactions and the data inside are consistent, reliable and not corrupted. An object-oriented concept was adopted for the design and implementation of the database schema because it represents real world information as an object with related attributes and a variety of relationships. It can make the manipulation of this object and its related data easy, straightforward and relatively fast. In addition, the concept is applicable for capturing and reflecting biological information that is apparently heterogeneous and sophisticated . The major design of the conceptual data structure that characterizes data in systems biology was adapted from the BioPAX ontology. Among standards, such as BioPAX, SBML and PSI-MI, for representation of biological pathway data, the main structure of them is fairly similar but BioPAX is the most general . It describes biological objects in a class hierarchy, has explicit use of relations among entities and covers most of the molecular entities in biological pathways. By realizing usages of different standard formats, we included the parser classes in the library. These classes support standard formats that are generally used in most biological databases to accommodate integration of data from different sources to the database and to enhance extensibility of the system.
The database system was applied for establishing the yeast data repository, which represents an integrated platform for performing efficient systems biology research. Two applications were developed showing that building additional applications on a single database environment administrated by the dedicated database system is feasible and convenient. It should be noted that correctness and completeness of results from both research cases are not the main concern in this study, since they are depended on the quality and the availability of data sources. However the restricted control processes and functions in the database API library were designed to ensure integrity and reliability of data in the database.
We believe that the proposed database system shows an extensive attempt to serve and solve complex data handling and integration in systems biology by following and using different standards and technologies. It gives users the ability to extend and personalize the views of data through additional applications and ensures the integrity, consistency and reliability of data in the database.
Availability and requirements
Project name: A dedicated database system for handling multi-level data in systems biology.
Project home page: http://atlas.sysbio.chalmers.se:8082.
Operating system(s): Platform independent.
Programming language: C++, php.
Other requirements: Web Browser.
Any restrictions to use by non-academics: none.
This project was supported by The Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation and the Bioinformatics Infrastructure for Life Sciences (BILS). The open access charge is supported by Chalmers Library.
- Ideker T, Galitski T, Hood L: A new approach to decoding life: systems biology. Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet. 2001, 2: 343-372.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Benson DA, Karsch-Mizrachi I, Clark K, Lipman DJ, Ostell J, Sayers EW: GenBank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012, 40 (Database issue): D48-D53.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Magrane M, Consortium U: UniProt Knowledgebase: a hub of integrated protein data. Database (Oxford). 2011, 2011: bar009.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cherry JM, Hong EL, Amundsen C, Balakrishnan R, Binkley G, Chan ET, Christie KR, Costanzo MC, Dwight SS, Engel SR, Fisk DG, Hirschman JE, Hitz BC, Karra K, Krieger CJ, Miyasato SR, Nash RS, Park J, Skrzypek MS, Simison M, Weng S, Wong ED: Saccharomyces Genome Database: the genomics resource of budding yeast. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012, 40 (Database issue): D700-D705.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wishart DS, Knox C, Guo AC, Eisner R, Young N, Gautam B, Hau DD, Psychogios N, Dong E, Bouatra S, Mandal R, Sinelnikov I, Xia J, Jia L, Cruz JA, Lim E, Sobsey CA, Shrivastava S, Huang P, Liu P, Fang L, Peng J, Fradette R, Cheng D, Tzur D, Clements M, Lewis A, De Souza A, Zuniga A, Dawe M, et al: HMDB: a knowledgebase for the human metabolome. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009, 37 (Database issue): D603-D610.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stark C, Breitkreutz BJ, Chatr-Aryamontri A, Boucher L, Oughtred R, Livstone MS, Nixon J, Van Auken K, Wang X, Shi X, Reguly T, Rust JM, Winter A, Dolinski K, Tyers M: The BioGRID Interaction Database: 2011 update. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011, 39 (Database issue): D698-D704.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ogata H, Goto S, Sato K, Fujibuchi W, Bono H, Kanehisa M: KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Nucleic Acids Res. 1999, 27 (1): 29-34.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Parkinson H, Sarkans U, Kolesnikov N, Abeygunawardena N, Burdett T, Dylag M, Emam I, Farne A, Hastings E, Holloway E, Holloway E, Kurbatova N, Lukk M, Malone J, Mani R, Pilicheva E, Rustici G, Sharma A, Williams E, Adamusiak T, Brandizi M, Sklyar N, Brazma A: ArrayExpress update–an archive of microarray and high-throughput sequencing-based functional genomics experiments. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011, 39 (Database issue): D1002-D1004.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Barrett T, Troup DB, Wilhite SE, Ledoux P, Evangelista C, Kim IF, Tomashevsky M, Marshall KA, Phillippy KH, Sherman PM, Muertter RN, Holko M, Ayanbule O, Yefanov A, Soboleva A: NCBI GEO: archive for functional genomics data sets–10 years on. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011, 39 (Database issue): D1005-D1010.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cary MP, Bader GD, Sander C: Pathway information for systems biology. FEBS Lett. 2005, 579 (8): 1815-1820.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hucka M, Finney A, Sauro HM, Bolouri H, Doyle JC, Kitano H, Arkin AP, Bornstein BJ, Bray D, Cornish-Bowden A, Cuellar AA, Dronov S, Gilles ED, Ginkel M, Gor V, Goryanin II, Hedley WJ, Hodgman TC, Hofmeyr JH, Hunter PJ, Juty NS, Kasberger JL, Kremling A, Kummer U, Le Novère N, Loew LM, Lucio D, Mendes P, Minch E, Mjolsness ED, et al: The systems biology markup language (SBML): a medium for representation and exchange of biochemical network models. Bioinformatics. 2003, 19 (4): 524-531.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lloyd CM, Halstead MD, Nielsen PF: CellML: its future, present and past. Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2004, 85 (2–3): 433-450.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hermjakob H, Montecchi-Palazzi L, Bader G, Wojcik J, Salwinski L, Ceol A, Moore S, Orchard S, Sarkans U, von Mering C, Roechert B, Poux S, Jung E, Mersch H, Kersey P, Lappe M, Li Y, Zeng R, Rana D, Nikolski M, Husi H, Brun C, Shanker K, Grant SG, Sander C, Bork P, Zhu W, Pandey A, Brazma A, Jacq B, et al: The HUPO PSI's molecular interaction format–a community standard for the representation of protein interaction data. Nat Biotechnol. 2004, 22 (2): 177-183.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Demir E, Cary MP, Paley S, Fukuda K, Lemer C, Vastrik I, Wu G, D'Eustachio P, Schaefer C, Luciano J, Schacherer F, Martinez-Flores I, Hu Z, Jimenez-Jacinto V, Joshi-Tope G, Kandasamy K, Lopez-Fuentes AC, Mi H, Pichler E, Rodchenkov I, Splendiani A, Tkachev S, Zucker J, Gopinath G, Rajasimha H, Ramakrishnan R, Shah I, Syed M, Anwar N, Babur O, et al: The BioPAX community standard for pathway data sharing. Nat Biotechnol. 2010, 28 (9): 935-942.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ashburner M, Ball CA, Blake JA, Botstein D, Butler H, Cherry JM, Davis AP, Dolinski K, Dwight SS, Eppig JT, Harris MA, Hill DP, Issel-Tarver L, Kasarskis A, Lewis S, Matese JC, Richardson JE, Ringwald M, Rubin GM, Sherlock G: Gene ontology: tool for the unification of biology. The Gene Ontology Consortium. Nat Genet. 2000, 25 (1): 25-29.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Courtot M, Juty N, Knüpfer C, Waltemath D, Zhukova A, Dräger A, Dumontier M, Finney A, Golebiewski M, Hastings J, Hoops S, Keating S, Kell DB, Kerrien S, Lawson J, Lister A, Lu J, Machne R, Mendes P, Pocock M, Rodriguez N, Villeger A, Wilkinson DJ, Wimalaratne S, Laibe C, Hucka M, Le Novère N: Controlled vocabularies and semantics in systems biology. Mol Syst Biol. 2011, 7: 543.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cerami EG, Bader GD, Gross BE, Sander C: cPath: open source software for collecting, storing, and querying biological pathways. BMC Bioinform. 2006, 7: 497.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cakmak A, Qi X, Coskun SA, Das M, Cheng E, Cicek AE, Lai N, Ozsoyoglu G, Ozsoyoglu ZM: PathCase-SB architecture and database design. BMC Syst Biol. 2011, 5: 188.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cerami EG, Gross BE, Demir E, Rodchenkov I, Babur O, Anwar N, Schultz N, Bader GD, Sander C: Pathway Commons, a web resource for biological pathway data. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011, 39 (Database issue): D685-D690.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Boyle J, Cavnor C, Killcoyne S, Shmulevich I: Systems biology driven software design for the research enterprise. BMC Bioinform. 2008, 9: 295.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Maier CW, Long JG, Hemminger BM, Giddings MC: Ultra-Structure database design methodology for managing systems biology data and analyses. BMC Bioinform. 2009, 10: 254.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sreenivasaiah PK, Kimdo H: Current trends and new challenges of databases and web applications for systems driven biological research. Front Physiol. 2010, 1: 147.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ozsoyoglu ZM, Ozsoyoglu G, Nadeau J: Genomic pathways database and biological data management. Anim Genet. 2006, 37 (Suppl 1): 41-47.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Okayama T, Tamura T, Gojobori T, Tateno Y, Ikeo K, Miyazaki S, Fukami-Kobayashi K, Sugawara H: Formal design and implementation of an improved DDBJ DNA database with a new schema and object-oriented library. Bioinformatics. 1998, 14 (6): 472-478.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Barry DK: The Object Database Handbook: How To Select, Implement, and Use Object Oriented Databases. 1996, New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.Google Scholar
- Steel BT: Interim Report ANSI/X3/SPARC Study Group on Data Base Management Systems. ACM SIGMOD Record. 1975, 7 (2):Google Scholar
- Hoffer JA, George J, Valacich J: Modern Systems Analysis and Design. 2010, 2010: Prentice Hall, 6Google Scholar
- Quintero C, Tran K, Szewczak AA: High-throughput quality control of DMSO acoustic dispensing using photometric dye methods. J Lab Autom. 2013, 18 (4): 296-305.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chodorow K: MongoDB, the Definitive Guide. 2013, Sebastopol: O'Reilly MediaGoogle Scholar
- Flicek P, Ahmed I, Amode MR, Barrell D, Beal K, Brent S, Carvalho-Silva D, Clapham P, Coates G, Fairley S, Fitzgerald S, Gil L, García-Girón C, Gordon L, Hourlier T, Hunt S, Juettemann T, Kähäri AK, Keenan S, Komorowska M, Kulesha E, Longden I, Maurel T, McLaren WM, Muffato M, Nag R, Overduin B, Pignatelli M, Pritchard B, Pritchard E, et al: Ensembl 2013. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013, 41 (Database issue): D48-D55.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Osterlund T, Nookaew I, Bordel S, Nielsen J: Mapping condition-dependent regulation of metabolism in yeast through genome-scale modeling. BMC Syst Biol. 2013, 7: 36.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Teixeira MC, Monteiro P, Jain P, Tenreiro S, Fernandes AR, Mira NP, Alenquer M, Freitas AT, Oliveira AL, Sa-Correia I: The YEASTRACT database: a tool for the analysis of transcription regulatory associations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006, 34 (Database issue): D446-D451.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Harbison CT, Gordon DB, Lee TI, Rinaldi NJ, Macisaac KD, Danford TW, Hannett NM, Tagne JB, Reynolds DB, Yoo J, Jennings EG, Zeitlinger J, Pokholok DK, Kellis M, Rolfe PA, Takusagawa KT, Lander ES, Gifford DK, Fraenkel E, Young RA: Transcriptional regulatory code of a eukaryotic genome. Nature. 2004, 431 (7004): 99-104.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Breitkreutz A, Choi H, Sharom JR, Boucher L, Neduva V, Larsen B, Lin ZY, Breitkreutz BJ, Stark C, Liu G, Liu G, Ahn J, Dewar-Darch D, Reguly T, Tang X, Almeida R, Qin ZS, Pawson T, Gingras AC, Nesvizhskii AI, Tyers M: A global protein kinase and phosphatase interaction network in yeast. Science. 2010, 328 (5981): 1043-1046.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Roberts CJ, Nelson B, Marton MJ, Stoughton R, Meyer MR, Bennett HA, He YD, Dai H, Walker WL, Hughes TR, Tyers M, Boone C, Friend SH: Signaling and circuitry of multiple MAPK pathways revealed by a matrix of global gene expression profiles. Science. 2000, 287 (5454): 873-880.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chen RE, Thorner J: Function and regulation in MAPK signaling pathways: lessons learned from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007, 1773 (8): 1311-1340.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wang K, Hu F, Xu K, Cheng H, Jiang M, Feng R, Li J, Wen T: CASCADE_SCAN: mining signal transduction network from high-throughput data based on steepest descent method. BMC Bioinform. 2011, 12: 164.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Broach JR: Nutritional control of growth and development in yeast. Genetics. 2012, 192 (1): 73-105.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhang J, Vaga S, Chumnanpuen P, Kumar R, Vemuri GN, Aebersold R, Nielsen J: Mapping the interaction of Snf1 with TORC1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Syst Biol. 2011, 7: 545.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stromback L, Lambrix P: Representations of molecular pathways: an evaluation of SBML, PSI MI and BioPAX. Bioinformatics. 2005, 21 (24): 4401-4407.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.